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When attempting to open a mosaic dataset created or edited in a later version of ArcMap in a previous version of ArcMap, the following error is returned:
Error: Open Failed: Error opening mosaic dataset
Error: Warning: Could not add the specified data object to the map.
Mosaic datasets are not backward compatible because of the expanded functionality of the mosaic datasets available with every version of ArcMap. For example, a mosaic dataset created in ArcMap 10.5 has more flexibility for data storage than the mosaic dataset created in ArcMap 10.4 or 10.3. A mosaic dataset created in a later version of ArcMap can hold more raster formats and has a different table space compared to a mosaic dataset created in the previous versions of ArcMap, even if the mosaic dataset is referencing to the exact same rasters.
It is recommended to create and maintain all mosaic datasets in the earliest versions of ArcMap, and use later versions of ArcMap only for viewing. If possible, publish the mosaic dataset to ArcGIS Image Server as an image service and use the service to perform any analysis.