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Crandall rule

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  1. [surveying] A special-case, least-squares-based method for adjusting the closure error in a traverse. The Crandall rule is most frequently used in a closed traverse that represents a parcel from a subdivision plan to ensure that tangency between courses remains intact as, for example, when applied to a tangent curve. It assumes that course directions and angles have no errors and, therefore, all error corrections are applied only to the distances. This method uses a least-squares analysis and adjustment to distribute the closure error and applies infinite weight to the angles or direction measurements to ensure that they are not adjusted. In some circumstances, the results of this adjustment method may be unexpected, or the adjustment may not be possible, and an alternative method is required. The Crandall rule was developed by C.L. Crandall around 1901.

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