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- [coordinate systems, spatial analysis] A geometric transformation that scales, rotates, skews, or translates images or coordinates between any two Euclidean spaces. It is commonly used in GIS to transform maps between coordinate systems. Affine transformations preserve parallel lines, ratios of distances between points, and all points on a straight line remain on a straight line; affine transformations do not necessarily preserve angles or lengths.
- [data conversion] In imagery, a six-parameter coordinate transformation that defines the relationship between pixels and an image coordinate system for interior orientation or other geometric transformations. Affine transformation can include translation, rotation, scale-change, and shearing.