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- [Euclidean geometry] A three-dimensional shape obtained by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis, resulting in an oblate spheroid, or about its major axis, resulting in a prolate spheroid.
- [geodesy] When used to represent the earth, a three-dimensional shape obtained by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis, with dimensions that either approximate the earth as a whole, or with a part that approximates the corresponding portion of the geoid.