No, the heat map symbology only applies to point features. It displays the relative density of points as a dynamic raster visualization with a range of colors. In ArcGIS Pro, the only way to apply the heat map symbology is to create a point from the polygon feature classes.
Note: In Step 2 of How To: Calculate geometry in ArcGIS Pro, select the new fields for the Target Field parameter and the preferred property from the drop-down list in the Property parameter.
Note: Alternatively, it is possible to create the point feature class from the centroids or extents of the polygons. Refer to How To: Add point features to the centroid and the minimum and maximum extent of a polygon feature in ArcGIS Pro for more information.