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Business Analyst Desktop 10.3.1 may return a memory error when processing large input files in either Microsoft Excel or Access .mdb formats. This is an intermittent issue and input file size triggering the error varies by machine.
Excel and Access .mdb file types do not work in ArcGIS 64-bit background geoprocessing. Therefore, these files are processed in the foreground, which limits the amount of RAM that can be allotted to the operation.
Export the Excel or Access .mdb file into a format compatible with 64-bit geoprocessing. Doing so eliminates the memory error, as additional RAM can be partitioned to the operation.
There are many methods of changing input file types within Business Analyst Desktop, as well as several acceptable file types. The approach described below involves exporting the file in question to a new File Geodatabase, which is an Esri native file type.