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What sets the initial Zoom to Selected Features scale for a single point?
Because points are zero-dimensional, they do not have a bounding geometry or an extent envelope like polygons and lines. An envelope is defined as a minimum bounding rectangle with a width (x-value) and height (y-value).
When a user selects the option to zoom to a point feature from a selection, ArcMap assigns geometry to the point feature since points have no spatial extent. The extent of the entire point feature class is examined, and a zoom scale is selected based on the extent of the feature class.
The calculated zoom scale is 1/20th of the full extent of the feature class.
Note: If the data frame is zoomed out further than 1/20th of the feature class' extent, the 'Zoom To' tool zooms in to 1/20th of the full extent. The same scale is seen in the data frame.
Note: If the data frame is zoomed in closer than 1/20th of the feature class' extent and select the option to 'Zoom To', the geometry or extent envelope is re-created, and the data is centered in the data view.