Error: ArcGIS Desktop has encountered a serious application error...
After installing and successfully launching ArcMap 10 for the first time, any subsequent attempts to run ArcMap result in the following error message:
"ArcGIS Desktop has encountered a serious application error...”.
This type of error is caused when the graphics card driver has not been upgraded and does not meet the system requirements of ArcGIS Desktop 10.
Solution or Workaround
As a workaround, verify that the computer has the correct video graphic card that meets the minimum ArcGIS requirements to run. The minimum video card required to run ArcGIS is OpenGL 2.0. If the computer does not, install a new graphics card at the minimum OpenGL 2.0 graphic card or one at a higher level. The minimum system requirements can be found at ArcGIS Desktop 10 System Requirements.