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There are situations when it is necessary to have more than one ArcSDE geodatabase on the same server, such as when maintaining separate development and production geodatabases of the same ArcSDE release.
IBM DB2, Informix, PostgreSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server allow creation of multiple databases on the same RDBMS instance. Geodatabases can be created in each of these databases. If only direct connections are made to the geodatabases, no additional steps are required beyond installing database client applications on the client computers. However, if using ArcSDE service connections, each geodatabase must have its own unique ArcSDE service name and port number in the services.sde file on the ArcSDE server. The links in the Procedure section provide instructions for setting up multiple ArcSDE services for multiple geodatabases on the same server.
In Oracle, to have separate databases with their own geodatabase and ArcSDE service, multiple Oracle instances are required.
Beginning with ArcSDE 9.2, multiple geodatabases can also be created in one Oracle database by creating user-schema geodatabases. In the case of user-schema geodatabases, only one ArcSDE service is required. This service connects to the master ArcSDE geodatabase. See the help topics, The relationship between the master geodatabase and user-schema geodatabases in Oracle and Creating a geodatabase in a user's schema in Oracle for more information.
As mentioned in the summary, if only direct connections to the geodatabases are used, setup is the same as it is for geodatabases on a separate server. If ArcSDE service connections are used, setup is slightly different on the server.
The following are links to help topics that describe how to use ArcSDE service connections with multiple geodatabases on the same server for each type of RDBMS.