Problem: ArcMap field aliases don't show up in the Select by Attribute dialog box
Field names are displayed in ArcMap's Select by Attributes dialog box instead of field aliases.
The Select by Attributes dialog box sends queries directly to the database. Using field aliases in these queries will not work because the database has no knowledge of them. Field aliases are tied to layers, and are stored in Map documents (.mxd) and layer files (.lyr).
Solution or Workaround
Use field names when building queries in the Select by Attributes dialog.