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This error occurs when attempting to start editing a data layer in ArcMap:
Could not edit any of maps layers. Check to see that the spatial reference of the map and the data are the same.
Two possible causes:
1. The data frame is displaying its layers in a projection that is not the same as the projection of the data.
2. The data is a coverage with preliminary polygon topology.
Coverages with preliminary topology are displayed with a red polygon icon in ArcCatalog and in the data browsers of ArcMap and ArcToolbox.