In some instances, a feature class does not display spatial data such as bounding boxes and polygon features, even if the attribute table displays as expected. Clicking the Zoom To Layer option in the Table Of Contents causes the features to disappear.
This issue occurs when the extent of the feature class does not match the spatial index bounding box values of the file geodatabase.
Resolve the issue by recalculating the feature class extent, as described in the following steps.
Alternatively, use the Recalculate Feature Class Extent tool. This tool is only available with ArcGIS Desktop 10.4 and above.