The default limit for the number of characters in a text question type field is 255.
However, users can change the character limit when creating a survey in ArcGIS Survey123 Connect with the bind:esri:fieldLength column in the XLSForm. The bind:esri:fieldLength column in the survey worksheet of the XLSForm defines the length of the text question field and limits the number of characters users can input in the text question field. This allows users to set the maximum number of characters of the text question type field.
For example, if users want to allow up to 1000 characters in the text question type field, set the value of the bind:esri:fieldLength column to 1000.
To increase the character limit without expanding the field length, enter the multiline value in the appearance column of the text question type.