Yes, it is possible to sort features based on their spatial location in ArcGIS Pro. Features are typically sorted by which object is first created. For example, the following point features are sorted and labeled according to their Object ID.
Features can be sorted based on the spatial distribution pattern by using the Spatial Sort Method parameter in the Sort tool. To sort the features using the Spatial Sort Method parameter, select Shape in the Sort Field parameter. However, sorting by the Shape field is only available with a Desktop Advanced license. For more information on how the Sort tool works, refer to the following documentation: How Sort (management) works.
For users with a Desktop Basic or Standard license, features can be sorted based on spatial location by adding coordinates information to the feature attribute table.
Note: For line and polygon features, select Line start, midpoint, and end coordinates.
Note: In this article, POINT_X is selected as the sort field.