No, it is not possible to recover a deleted XLSX survey file from ArcGIS Enterprise and the local machine. Esri recommends creating a backup of the ArcGIS Enterprise environment using the webgisdr utility, or creating a backup of local files on the local machine.
If the survey data is collected on a mobile device using the Survey123 for ArcGIS field app, the XLSX survey file is downloaded to the internal storage of the mobile device. To retrieve the XLSX survey file from the device's internal storage, choose the workflow according to the appropriate mobile device operating system.
For Android devices
This PC\<Android Device>\Internal Storage\ArcGIS\My Surveys
For iOS devices
Note: Ensure iTunes is installed on the computer before performing the following steps.