No, it is not possible to cache an answer to a question in ArcGIS Survey123 Connect as in the ArcGIS Survey123 website.
Note: To cache an answer in the ArcGIS Survey123 website, on the Edit tab, check the Cache answer to this question check box.
As workaround, use one of the following options to prepopulate an answer in the ArcGIS Survey123 Connect application.
Use a default answer
In the XLSForm, set a default answer in the default column of the question. This prepopulates the survey question with the same answer for each new survey. Refer to ArcGIS Survey123: Prepopulate answers for more information.
Set the current state of the survey to act as favourite answers
This option saves the answers to the whole survey, not just the answer to one question. Click Paste answers from favorite from the menu to paste the answers in a new survey. Refer to ArcGIS Survey123: Favorite answers for more information.