When upgrading to ArcGIS GIS Server 10.5.1, the following error is returned:
Upgrade step 2 of 2: Failed. Refresh auto-deployed services during upgrade.
This error occurs because the ArcGIS Server Geoprocessing Service Startup Patch is missing.
Solution or Workaround
During the last step of the site upgrade, previous versions of the services are upgraded to newer versions. However, an error is returned during the process if the services cannot be stopped and restarted.
To facilitate the upgrade and restart of the geoprocessing services, install the following patch: ArcGIS Server Geoprocessing Service Startup Patch. After installing the patch, the ArcGIS GIS Server service restarts, allowing the server site to be upgraded.