When editing an attribute table of an ArcGIS Online hosted feature layer in ArcGIS Pro, the following error is returned:
Error: Update table row failed. General function failure [Invalid column name '<field name>'.]
The field indicated in the error is a required field that is deleted. Edits cannot be made once a required field is deleted.
Add a field with the same name as the deleted field to the attribute table. Refer to ArcGIS Pro: Create a field and apply a domain and default value for more information.
Alternatively, create a copy of the hosted feature layer. Delete the required field and publish it to ArcGIS Online as a new hosted feature layer. This way edits can be made to the attribute table without the required field.