After installing and successfully launching ArcMap 10.x for the first time, subsequent attempts to run ArcMap return the following error message:
Error: ArcGIS Desktop has encountered a serious application error...
This error occurs when the graphics card driver is not updated and does not meet the system requirements of ArcGIS Desktop.
As a workaround, verify that the computer has the correct video graphics card that meets the minimum ArcGIS requirements to run. The minimum video card required to run ArcGIS is OpenGL 2.0. If the computer does not have the correct card, install a new graphics card, at minimum the OpenGL 2.0 graphics card or one at a higher level. The minimum system requirements can be found at ArcGIS Desktop 10.8 System Requirements.