The 'current display extent' statistics option can be used to show better contrast stretching within a raster dataset.
Maps that are printed or exported with this option often have a striped or banded pattern of the data in the output. The stripes can be characterized by actual data that is banded with different saturations or intensities.
When displaying the 'current display extent' statistics on a monitor, it looks fine because the algorithm that calculates the statistics performs the calculation using the entire dataset.
When a map is printed or exported, it is processed as long rectangular strips of data. Each strip of data has slightly different statistics and therefore, because of the current display extent stretching, a slightly different rendering contrast stretch is calculated.
This can result in a striping or banding pattern on output.
This raster dataset only uses the statistics that are contained in the raster dataset, which is the same as the statistics of the current display extent.