In ArcGIS Online Map Viewer, when adding a publicly shared CSV file in Google Drive using the Add Layer from Web option, the following error message is returned:
The layer was not created because no locations could be found. Make sure your data has valid location information.
This could be because of using a Share link that allows viewing and/or editing the document. The Direct download link should be created instead.
If the Share link appears as follows:
Change it to a Direct download link:
In ArcGIS Online, open a map and navigate to Add > Add Layer from web > A CSV file, and paste the Direct download link; click Add Layer.