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Problem: Zooming to a layer doesn't zoom to the correct extent of the features in the feature class

Description

After adding a feature class to a blank data frame in ArcMap and right-clicking the feature class to zoom to the layer, the view does not zoom to the correct spatial extent of the feature class.

Cause

This is because the spatial extent property of the feature class is incorrect or corrupted, potentially caused by failure of recalculating extent after adding new features or removing features from the original feature class. 

Solution or Workaround

With an ArcGIS for Desktop Standard or Advanced license:

With an ArcGIS for Desktop Basic license:
  1. Add the feature class to a blank new map in ArcMap, and use the Pan and Zoom tools to place all features in the feature class in the center of the map view in ArcMap.
  2. In Catalog window of ArcMap, right-click the feature class and click Properties
  3. Click the Feature Extent tab, and click the Recalculate button to recalculate the XY extent to the current extent of the map.