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The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) function on the Image Analysis window generates a standardized index representing relative biomass health and density. In some instances, applying the NDVI function to remotely sensed satellite imagery returns unexpected results.
The NDVI function requires the correct input of the red and near infrared bands, since it calculates the differential reflection of the bands. Band orders corresponding to the red and infrared differ depending on the specific satellite sensor or source data. Selecting incorrect band orders for the red and near infrared bands returns incorrect results.
Specify the correct band orders for the red and near infrared inputs in the Image Analysis window.
The Infrared Band field requires an input of the near infrared band order.
Alternatively, check the check box next to Use Wavelength to use the wavelength information present in the dataset.
Check the check box next to Scientific Output to produce outputs in the range of -1.0 to 1.0. By default, ArcMap outputs NDVI values in the range of 0 to 200 for a better color ramp rendition. For more information on the significance of the output values, refer to the following documentation, ArcGIS Help: NDVI function.
The output of the Image Analysis window is added to the map document as a temporary layer. To save the output layer as a raster dataset, click the Export button on the Image Analysis window and specify the output location of the raster dataset.