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What happened to background geoprocessing in ArcGIS Pro?
In 32-bit ArcGIS for Desktop, the background geoprocessing function works by using a separate 64-bit process to perform the analysis, which is why 64-bit Background Geoprocessing must be installed separately. When invoked, it is seen in Task Manager as two RuntimeLocalServer.exe processes.
Since ArcGIS Pro is itself a 64-bit application, a separate process for background geoprocessing is no longer needed. Tools are run asynchronously, not on a separate task that appears in Task Manager, and allow work to continue in the application while they execute.
As of this writing, additional functionality to run tools in a separate process is being considered.