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When adding the service URL from ArcGIS for Server to an ArcGIS Online web map and login credentials are entered in the Sign In dialog box, the following error is returned: “Unable to access the authentication service.”
This issue occurs when the certificate chain is broken between an SSL certificate and a trusted root Certificate Authority (CA) that allows a trusted path and secure connection between the ArcGIS for Server machine and the ArcGIS Online browser.
SSL Certificates are small data files that digitally bind a cryptographic key to an organization’s details and allow secure connections from a web server to a browser.
Example of unbroken certificate chain
Example of broken certificate chain
Install an intermediate certificate to link the SSL certificate to the trusted root CA.
Visit this website to verify the SSL certificate.