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When using database management systems (DBMS) data with ArcGIS for Desktop 10.1 SP1's 64-bit Background Geoprocessing upgrade, processes fail with a variety of error messages. When run from the foreground, the same data works without issue.
For example, error messages could be:
• "error 000229 : Cannot Open <value>"
• "error 000622 : Failed to execute (<value>). Parameters are not valid."
• "error 000732 : <value>: Dataset <value> does not exist or is not supported."
This is similar to problems registering a database from ArcGIS for Server 10.1. Some DBMS, such as Oracle, require the same client bit version as the processor that is used to manipulate the data.
For example, if only the 32-bit Oracle client was available after installing the 64-bit background geoprocessing upgrade, background geoprocessing using Oracle SDE data fails. Foreground geoprocessing would still work since it runs on the 32-bit processor which matches the currently available client on this machine.
Since ArcGIS Desktop is natively a 32-bit client, this also explains why the 32-bit client install allows for data to be processed in any Desktop version before the 10.1 SP1 64-bit Background Geoprocessing upgrade is installed.
Therefore, the machine must have both 32-bit and 64-bit clients installed if the 64-bit Background Geoprocessing Upgrade is installed on the machine.
To resolve the failures due to client communication issues, install the 64-bit client alongside the 32-bit version. Follow the instructions specific to the database used.