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Can ArcGIS Server be installed on a domain controller?
Esri does not recommend or support running Esri Server-based software on a domain controller, because the function of a domain controller is to coordinate activities on a domain, not to serve as a Web server and application server. In most organizations, these are separate machines with very different functionality.
Domain controllers do not allow Local Users and Groups to be used once the server has been promoted to a domain controller. This may cause issues when running the post installation as it tries to create the ArcGISSOM, ArcGISSOC, and ArcGISWebServices accounts.
Instead of deploying ArcGIS Server on a domain controller, consider an ArcGIS Server for Amazon Cloud-based solution which provides a scalable, fully functional ArcGIS Server solution without the infrastructure investment.