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ArcGIS server cannot access SDE data if a Windows domain user account and password are used to make the SDE connection as database authentication in ArcCatalog.
When previewing the map service, an error displays:
"Cannot display this layer. The data source referenced by this layer may be missing or corrupted."
A Windows domain user account is not a real SQL server database account.
Make a new database connection and check the 'operating system authentication' option. Create a new MXD, add the ArcGISSOC account into SQL server, and grant proper permission. In this case, the ArcGISSOC account is used to connect to the SDE.