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Creating or altering an st_spatial_index's grid size using SQL results in the ArcSDE layer's grid metadata no longer matching the actual st_geometry attribute's grid values.
When the spatial index's grid values do not match ArcSDE layer's grid values, spatial queries from ArcGIS return incorrect results.
Using SQL to CREATE or ALTER an st_spatial_index for layers that are registered with ArcSDE and setting the parameter grid values to a size that does not match the grid values in the sde.layers table, causes invalid grid values to be set for ArcGIS spatial queries.
Using ArcGIS to change a layer's spatial index's grid size is the recommended method for changing an st_geometry layer's grid size.
If the st_spatial_index grid values have already been modified using SQL, ArcCatalog can still be used to set the appropriate grid size values and rebuild the spatial index.