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When changing layout size and/or printers, the map elements scale improperly.
The map document contains some map elements that have been dragged off and exist outside the map page in the ArcMap layout.
In this example, the map layout is an 8.5" x 11" with a text string sitting off the page.
When the map page is scaled up to 11" x 17" using the Page Setup option 'Scale map elements proportionally to changes in page size', it scales all the elements, including the text string, which subsequently shifts the data frame off the page.
Remove any map elements that are not included on the page size before scaling the map page.
Please note that this problem is resolved in ArcGIS Pro. It is highly recommended to use ArcGIS Pro for printing and exporting, especially when experiencing issues caused by the limitations of the ArcMap display engine. More specifically, ArcGIS Pro is not restricted by the graphical device interface (GDI) limitations that some users experience in ArcMap. For example, transparency is natively supported in ArcGIS Pro, preventing the rasterization of layers. Additionally, ArcGIS Pro supports transparency in layout elements.
Note: ArcGIS Pro does not support exporting Adobe Illustrator files; it is recommended to export using PDF or SVG instead. Also, because ArcGIS Pro does not use the Windows GDI, font substitution or fallback does not occur in ArcGIS Pro. Boxes may appear if using characters unsupported by the chosen font.