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When serving a map document in ArcGIS that connects to ArcSDE using Operating System Authentication, the layers do not display when viewing the map in a browser.
The ArcSOC process is set by the Post install to run under a specific user account. By default, this account is ArcGISSOC. When using Operating System Authentication, the ArcGISSOC account is the user that connects to ArcSDE to retrieve the data.
With ArcGIS Server Workgroup Edition, Operating System Authentication is the only connection method, therefore the ArcGISSOC account needs to be added to the database.
Add the ArcGISSOC account to the RDBMS and give it 'Select' access to all layers that are added to the map document.
If using ArcGIS Server for editing, give the ArcGISSOC account full access to all layers in the map document.
For steps on adding users to an ArcSDE Geodatabase, refer to the link to the Online Help below.