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WMS image service layers disappear from the map when printed or exported from ArcMap, despite displaying correctly in ArcMap Layout.
When ArcMap requests an image size from a WMS service that is larger than the server's limit, the WMS server does not send an image and the WMS service layer does not draw.
Most servers maximize performance and availability by specifying a size limit on all output images they create. This size limit is set by each server and varies from service to service. Since services are primarily designed to display on a computer monitor, size limits set by the server are likely be proportionate with the size of an image displayed on the average monitor at the screen's resolution, which is usually 96 dots per inch (dpi).
Since WMS layers are treated as raster data, the amount of data requested depends on the target DPI and Output Image Quality. Lower DPI and/or output image quality for the desired export to request fewer pixels. This reduces the size requested. The goal is to request a size below the maximum image size for the server.