Problem: Spatial Adjustment does not work on geodatabase feature class.
The Spatial Adjustment Tools in an ArcMap Edit session do not work on a geodatabase feature class, but do work on a shapefile.
The extent of a geodatabase feature class is set when the feature class is created, and cannot be made larger. If the location the data is adjusted to is outside the extent of the feature class, the process fails. No error message is returned.
Solution or Workaround
There are two options to fix this problem:
Export the geodatabase feature class to a shapefile.
Perform the Spatial Adjustment process on the shapefile.
Import the shapefile that has been spatially adjusted back to a new feature class in the personal geodatabase.
Create a new geodatabase feature class, which has a large enough extent to contain the original location of the data, and extends to the location where the data should be adjusted.
Import the data from the existing feature class.
Perform the Spatial Adjustment on the geodatabase data which is in the new feature class, having the larger extent.