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Problem: Extra black values appear in the unique value renderer for GIF images

Description

A GIF image with less than 256 values may have some extra symbols when symbolized with a Unique Values renderer. For example, if the GIF only has four values (0, 1, 2, 3), eight values will appear in the legend. The extras (4, 5, 6, 7) will be represented by a black symbol.

Cause

This occurs when no statistics are present for the data. ArcMap uses the largest pixel value to determine the bit depth of the image. If the image does not use all values possible in the bit depth, ArcMap fills in these remaining values with black patches. ArcMap uses bit depths of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128.

Solution or Workaround

Calculate statistics for the raster. When Statistics are present, the renderer displays patches only for the values actually contained in the image.

Consult the following section of the ArcGIS Help for more details:
ArcCatalog > Working with rasters > Calculating statistics for your raster dataset